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BHS Filtration Technical Articles

Technical Articles

 


 

Continuous Vacuum Filtration Technologies for Sulfuric and Hydrochloric Acid Slurries

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This article discusses the different types of vacuum filtration technologies in the market for acidic slurries and the issues involved both from a process view and a safety view. Also covered is the use of alternate materials available in the construction of vacuum belt filters to address chemical compatibility concerns in applications using sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid as the liquid constituent in a slurry. This article continues with a case study including laboratory testing and scale up to a production vacuum belt filter. The challenge is to process 2,200 kg/h dry solids that have been precipitated from a sulfuric acid solution.

Removing contaminant fines from process water

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Careful analysis and creative approaches are required for optimum applications of filtration technologies. The article discusses filtration technologies, applications for grey water and water scrubbing as well as troubleshooting.

Thin-cake filtration technology to meet full containment for air-sensitive and toxic chemical and pharmaceutical production

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In many chemical and pharmaceutical processes, solid-liquid separation, cake washing and drying steps directly impact the effectiveness of the production operation. Further complicating these operations is the nature of the process and especially if the process is air-sensitive or toxic. This article discusses the choice of thin-cake (2-25 mm) pressure separation technology for full containment, no residual heel and their benefits to optimizing the effectiveness of the production process. For full containment, the paper then continues with a discussion of clean-in-place operations to meet current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines including riboflavin test, validations and ANSI/ISA S88 and IEC 61512-1 batch process control systems.

Clean-In-Place – BHS Meeting The Requirements in the Chemical, Pharmaceutical and Food Industries

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Current demands and trends in solid – liquid separation applications require that the filter technology have adequate cleaning procedures to prevent cross-contamination and to avoid microbial growth. This presentation demonstrates the CIP system of the BHS Rotary Pressure Filter (RPF) for applications in the chemical, pharmaceutical and food industries. The full CIP capability of the RPF allow for process solutions for applications where optimum cleaning effectiveness, cGMP compliance and contained product handling are required.

Process Scale-Up from Demonstration Batch Filtration to Commercial Continuous Filtration

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This article will follow the process filtration approach developed for each technology stage gate starting from batch filtration in the lab to continuous filtration for the full-scale commercial operation. The article begins with a discussion of each stage-gate and how to avoid the “cookie-cutter” approach to these types of projects. Process engineers must not “jump to conclusions”, a reference from Sherlock Holmes and Dr. John Watson who prove time and again is that there is no benefit to jumping to conclusions. Therefore, laboratory / bench top filtration testing is covered for problem analysis, technology selection and pilot and demonstration scale-up. The paper continues with the filtration testing and then scale-up to the commercial size. Finally, the paper concludes with a general review of the problem-solving skills of Holmes and Watson and how these skills can be utilized by process engineers as a framework for “idea-generation” when analyzing a new process scale-up.

Process Design Strategy: The Advantages of Continuous Filtration for Pharmaceutical Manufacturing

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The advantages of continuous manufacturing in the chemical industry have been realized for decades. In comparison to batch processing, these advantages include smaller space requirements, lower capital, better quality, higher yield, and improved health and safety concerns among many others. The regulatory environment and relatively smaller scale operations has hindered the development of these types for processes in the pharma industry. However recently, many industry leaders are beginning to push the development of new regulatory compliant continuous processes for manufacturing active pharmaceutical ingredients. Three case studies are examined showing how continuous filtration can be implemented successfully in the pharmaceutical industry and how the design strategy can be modified to accommodate the specific needs of the process. The result is a much more efficient and reliable separation process that is also compliant with all quality and regulatory requirements.

Thin-Cake Filtration Technology to meet full containment for air-sensitive and toxic chemical & pharmaceutical production

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A new process combining candle filters and pressure plate filters enables more glycol to be safely recovered from natural gas than by conventional methods.

Removing salts and contaminants in glycol regeneration

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In many chemical and pharmaceutical processes, solid-liquid separation, cake washing and drying steps directly impact the effectiveness of the production operation. Further complicating these operations is the nature of the process and especially if the process is air-sensitive or toxic. Process engineers devote much of their time to analyzing these steps.

Framework for Selecting Solid-Liquid Filtration Technologies for Particle Fines Removal

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In the manufacturing of chemicals, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, etc., after the initial mixing-reactions, there is always the necessity to remove the mother liquor from the process slurry. In some cases, the liquid is the valuable component, some cases it is the solids and in other cases it is both compounds. The nature of the requirements determines the type of equipment needed for the separation process. This paper provides an overview of separation equipment and then continues with a detailed view of technologies that can remove – recover small particle fines.

Combination Concentrating Candle Filters and Pressure Plate Filters for Removing Divalent Salts and Contaminants from Monoethylene Glycol Reclamation Units

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For the transport of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), monoethylene glycol (MEG) is injected as corrosion inhibitor and to reduce the freezing point of the water in the LNG. In the reclamation unit, rich MEG is converted to lean MEG. During MEG reclamation, the divalent salt concentration increases and these salts reduce the efficiency of the process and must be removed. This paper discusses a combination solid-liquid filtration system for as an alternative to thickeners, centrifuges, filter presses and cartridges. The rich MEG solids slurry is first concentrated using candle filters for a solids-free filtrate and a concentrated sludge of approximately 4-5 % solids. Next, pressure plate filters are used to wash and dry the cake to produce an MEG-free cake for non-hazardous disposal. The paper discusses laboratory tests, continues with case histories and concludes with the information that engineers need before deciding on a solid-liquid separation technology.

 

THINKING LIKE SHERLOCK HOLMES FOR PROCESS FILTRATION TECHNOLOGY SELECTION

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Solid-liquid separation is an instrumental part of chemical processing. To separate the solid particles, filter media are used as the basis for the filter cake. Often there will also be a washing process to improve the purity of the filter cake or to increase the yield of the liquid phase. Solid-liquid separation can be carried out in continuous or batch operation. There are many factors for selecting the right process filtration system for your specific application. This white paper reviews methods for identifying the right process filtration technology for your application and highlights case studies illustrating the methods discussed.

 

CONTINUOUS PRESSURE AND VACUUM FILTRATION TECHNOLOGIES AS ALTERNATIVES TO BATCH FILTRATION OPERATIONS

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This presentation will discuss lab testing, pilot testing and scale-up for converting chemical processes to continuous filtration technologies from batch filtration operations. The overall scheme can be used by process engineers to develop optimum continuous pressure or vacuum filtration solutions for high-solids slurry applications.

 

Combination Concentrating Candle Filter and Pressure Plate Filter Skid System

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BHS presentation focuses on a combined two-stage filtration process producing clean filtrates to 0.5 um with concentrating candle filters. The second stage is a pressure plate filter for final cake washing and drying. The benefits are clean filtrates with less water usage and less compressed gas usage.

 

BHS Solid-Liquid Separations Systems

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BHS seminar will cover testing, clarification-combination filtration, candle and pressure plate filter technologies, concentrating candle filters, vacuum belt filters to concentrating candle filters, rotary pressure filters and pharmaceutical Autopress (contained filter press) technology.

 

Framework for selecting thin-cake candle filter technology for removing solid contaminant fines from recirculating gas scrubbing fluids

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Removing acid gases and gas dehydration from gas streams is becoming more important as stricter environmental rules are being developed and gas streams are being developed off-shore for LNG. Candle filter technology and the process of thin-cake building, is a new approach for high-efficiency and cost-effective fines removal. The presentation begins with the problem definition and a discussion of the bench-top laboratory tests that are conducted for problem analysis, technology selection and scale-up. The presentation concludes with a review of typical case history and installation details for on-shore and off-shore applications.

 

Filtration, Cake Washing & Drying: Lab Testing to Pilot Testing to Project Installation and Performance Guarantees

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The presentation will discuss lab testing, pilot testing, scale-up, installation and performance guarantee for the BHS candle filter technology. The overall scheme can be used by process engineers to develop optimum filtration solutions for pressure or vacuum, batch or continuous and high-solids to clarification applications.

This customer presently filters a specialty chemical in a filter press using a paper filter media at 170 degrees C. Diatomaceous earth and/or activated carbon are used as a body feed and precoat. The material is dried with nitrogen and the solids are removed and burned in the power plant as fuel. The process has the typical problems associated with a filter press including bypass of slurry, manual operation, filter media plugging, non-reproducible quality plus the safety concerns of being burned with hot oil.

BHS began the application with laboratory testing using the BHS Pocket Leaf Filter. These tests determine pressure filtration, cake thickness, filter media, cycle times and quality parameters such as filtrate quality and final moisture content. The lab testing showed that the BHS Candle Filter is the correct technology for this application.

Following the lab testing, the plant then rented a pilot candle filter with 1 m2 of filter area. The objectives of this testing is to confirm the lab testing, observe cake discharge and develop the design parameters for the final scale-up and performance guarantees. The presentation concludes with a description of the installation, PLC controls and performance guarantees.

 

BHS Website A Review of the Rotary Pressure Filter for the Filtration of a Liquefied Gas Slurry

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In the manufacturing of this specialty chemical, the pilot plant examined the process to determine the most effective method for filtration to develop a production process. A study was undertaken, by plant engineering and development, to examine the use of a rotary pressure filter to develop the overall process operations for product quality and production rates.

This paper reviews the basics of two alternatives: rotary pressure filter and pressurized drum filters. The technologies are reviewed for the filtration of a liquefied gas slurry.

The article continues with the discussion of the process testing in the laboratory and in the field to evaluate the Rotary Pressure Filter. The lab testing used a BHS pressurized pocket leaf filter with 20 cm2 of filter area while the fieldwork was conducted on a Rotary Pressure Filter with a filter area of 0.18 m2. The paper discusses test procedures, data collection, filter media selection and other process parameters. Scale-up data includes process conditions and production rates.


The paper conclusion is two-fold: a review of the unique specifications of the rotary pressure filter required for the process to meet production rates, product quality and site environmental and safety concerns. Finally, the paper demonstrates the creative process solution that is developed with close collaboration between the operating company and the vendor.

 

BHS Website Solid-Liquid Filtration Trends for Particle Fines Removal in Manufacturing Environments

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In the manufacturing of chemicals, petrochemicals, pharmaceuticals, bioenergy etc., after the initial mixing reactions, there is always the necessity to remove the mother liquor from the process slurry. In some cases, the liquid is the valuable component, in some cases it is the solids and in other cases it is both compounds. The nature of the requirements will determine the type of equipment needed for the separation process.

Generally, after the initial mixing - reactions, there will be bulk separation to remove the larger product solids or unwanted solids. This is the easy step. As processes have become more sophisticated and quality requirements increased, there is a trend to be able to remove the residual particle fines from the slurries. These fines are very small, typically in the 1 – 5 micron range and smaller and are very low in concentration down to ppm levels. This paper provides a brief overview of crude separation equipment and then continues with a detailed view of technologies that can remove – recover small particle fines. The general term for this is “clarification” technologies and this will cover alternatives to traditional bag and cartridge filtration systems.


The paper concludes with a review of the installations in chemical, refinery, bioenergy and pharmaceutical plants to provide engineers with new and creative ways of thinking to evaluate process filtration problems and solutions.


Framework For Thin-Cake Candle Filter Technology For Removing Solid Contaminant Fines From Gas Scrubbing Liquids

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This paper discusses thin-cake candle filter technology that is used to remove trace amounts of solid contaminant fines from the recirculating fluid streams in amine, glycol and water scrubbers. These contaminants originate from various sources and are generally less than 1 micron (um) in size, which makes their removal very difficult. Candle filter technology and the process of tin-cake building, is a new approach for high-efficiency and cost-effective fines removal.

The paper begins with the problem definition and a discussion of the bench-top laboratory tests that are conducted for problem analysis, technology selection and scale-up.  The tests include pressure, filter media, temperature and viscosity concerns, precoat material and similar process parameters. The candle filter technology is examined for its ability to filter and dry the contaminants to meet the standards for solids disposal. Cake washing is also discussed, as, in some cases, soluble or insoluble components or hazardous solvents must be removed from the solid cake prior to disposal. The paper concludes with a review of typical case histories and installation details.

 

Selecting Thin-Cake Candle Filter Technology For Removing Catalyst Fines

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Removing acid gases from refinery off-gas streams is becoming more important as stricter environmental rules are being developed.  One critical aspect of acid gas removal is the solid-liquid filtration technology that is used to keep the recirculating fluid free of solid contaminant fines. 

Filtration provides the following benefits of keeping downstream equipment functioning properly, reduced heat exchanger fouling and reduction of foaming tendency in the absorbers. This paper discusses thin-cake candle filter technology that is used to remove trace amounts of solid contaminant fines from the recirculating fluid stream.  These contaminants originate from various sources and are generally less than 0.5 microns in size.  Candle filter technology and the process of thin-cake building, is a new approach that is employed for high-efficiency and cost-effective fines removal.  

Combining Pressure, Vacuum and Clarification Technologies for Optimum Process Solutions with Updated Data in  Appendix A

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Filtration experts, over the years, have discussed combination filtration and debated its
definition. In the realm of cartridge filtration, simply defined, a combination filter is one
that does at least one other processing job at the same time as filtering a suspension. For
example, this could be carbon canister which removes both suspended and dissolved
components. In water applications, a combination filter removes bacteria, sediment,
chlorine taste and odor, and scale. In lubrication oil filtration, combination filtration refers
to full-flow and by-pass flow filtration. Finally, for small scale process filtration,
combination filtration is installing bag and cartridge filtration systems in series.

There is, however, a new definition of combination filtration that transcends the standard
approach and will assist process engineers with trouble shooting and “idea-generation.”
The approach relies upon the slurry analysis and testing to uncover the “process symptom”
and then develop a process solution called “combination mechanical slurry conditioning
and filtration.” This article discusses slurry testing and process analysis and then
illustrates seven (7) case history example installations showing “combination mechanical
slurry conditioning and filtration.

Replacing Conventional and Manual Vacuum Filters

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The BHS technologies of Continuous-Indexing Vacuum Belt Filters provide improved product
quality with more efficient washing and drying as compared with conventional vacuum pan and
vacuum nutsche filters. Fully automatic operations provide for reduced maintenance costs and
overall project savings.

Selection of Filters for the Separation Process

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Selecting the right type of liquid/solid separating equipment is not a simple task as the range of equipment is very large. For these reasons it is useful for an engineer confronted with a separation problem to conduct the basic evaluations of the possible or probable solutions and above all establish which routes not to follow. This article will help to conduct basic testwork and then to select the most optimum separation equipment...

Thin-Cake Filtration Theory

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In most industrial solid-liquid separation applications, the process steps of filtration, washing and
dewatering (drying) are conducted on one filter. This paper describes the thin-cake filtration
theory for these operations.

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A Treatise of Filter Cake Washing Mechanisms In Pressure and Vacuum Filtration Systems (PDF)

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Abstract:

During many chemical and pharmaceutical process operations, cake washing is required for the removal of the mother liquor, exchange of solvents, dissolution of soluble components and the displacement of insoluble contaminants. This article introduces pragmatism into cake washing theory and will help to guide engineers during their decision-making processes.

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Clarification of API Slurries and Recovery of Solids
Published in the March 2006 Issue of PharmaChem, Milano, Italy (PDF)

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Abstract:

Candle Filters and Pressure Plate Filters are installed for clarification and recovery applications from liquids with low solids content. The candle filters are vertical candles while the pressure plate filters are horizontal plates and both are designed for complete containment and automatic cake discharge. The cake structure as well as the process parameters determines the optimum thin-cake technology.

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"Reprint from "Pharmaceutical Engineering" , Jan/Feb 2007, The Official Magazine of the ISPE, International Society of Pharmaceutical Engineers.

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This article discusses how the use of thincake vertical candle filters and horizontal pressure plate filters can efficiently remove activated carbon, metal catalysts, and trace insolubles from Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) slurries.

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Thin-Cake Filtration Technologies for Removing Activated Carbon, Catalysts and Other Trace Solids From Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Slurries (PDF)

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Abstract:

The BHS technologies of Vertical Candle Filters and Horizontal Pressure Plate Filters provide improved product quality with more efficient operations compared with manual pressure filters. The different technologies allow for the selection of the optimum process solution depending upon the cake characteristics and cake structure. Fully automatic operations provide for complete containment of the solids and liquids for reduced maintenance costs and overall project savings.

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A Six Sigma Approach to Evaluating Vacuum Filtration Technologies (PDF)

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Abstract:

This article compares three designs of vacuum belt filters (moving tray, rubber carrier belt and the BHS continuous-indexing technology). The evaluation had several stages from initial investigation, bench-top testing and finally pilot-scale testing. The BHS Continuous-Indexing Vacuum belt filter was the selected technology to replace a manually-operated filter press. The return-on-investment (ROI) calculation based upon the BHS process, operating and maintenance benefits allowed the project to be funded with a payback of less than 6 months.

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Clean-in-Place Operations for Thin-Cake Filtration Technologies (PDF)

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Abstract:

This article discusses the choice of thin-cake (2-25 mm) separation technologies and their benefits to optimizing the effectiveness of the production process. The paper continues with a discussion of clean-in-place operations to meet current Good Manufacturing Practices (cGMP) guidelines including riboflavin test and validations. ANSI/ISA S88 (and IEC 61512-1 in the international arena) batch process control system standards are also examined. Finally, factory and site acceptance testing is described.

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Continuous-Indexing Vacuum Filter as Replacement for Filter Presses (PDF)

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Abstract:

The BHS Continuous-Indexing Vacuum belt filter (CI-VBF) with 12 m2 of filter area replaced a 440 m2 filter press. The CI-VBF provided improved washing efficency for a higher quality product, and lower operating and lower maintenance costs with a fully automated operation.

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BHS Pharma Rotary Pressure Filter Article (PDF)

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Abstract:

The BHS Ph-RPF technology provides improved product quality with more efficient washing ratios compared with the inverting-basket centrifuges. Savings in solvent usage, energy consumption, maintenance costs and capital and installation costs result in overall project savings on the order of 4-6 to 1.

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Test it Right for Thin-Cake Filtration Operations (PDF)

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Abstract:

The appropriate BHS testing procedures can help direct the selection of pressure or vacuum filtration equipment and ensure optimum equipment operation.

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Improving Process Operations with a Rotary Pressure Filter (PDF)

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Abstract:

A rotary pressure filter can increase filtration rates, washing and drying efficiencies and eliminate organic solvent emissions.

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Evaluating thin-cake pressure filtration using the BHS Autopress technology (PDF)

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En español, Evaluación proceso de filtración por presión de tortas delgadas utilizando la tecnología Autopress de BHS.

Abstract:

Thin-cake pressure filtration technology offers an alternative to agitated nutsche filters and centrifuges for solid-liquid separation, cake washing, and drying.

Solid-liquid separation and cake washing are integral steps in the production of bulk or final pharmaceutical products. Each step must be optimized, along with the downstream dryer.

Complicating this process is the number of competing technologies and options that can be employed to accomplish these steps. For example, most pharmaceutical processes will use either an agitated nutsche filter or a centrifuge for the separation and washing step.

This article discusses the use of the thin-cake Autopress pressure filter as an alternative to agitated nutsche filters and centrifuges. The results are applicable to specialty chemical and other applications with similar process crystals and requirements.

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Comparison of Gypsum Dewatering Technologies at Flue Gas Desulfurization Plants (PDF)

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Abstract:

Recovering gypsum from flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants is becoming more important as the technical feasibility of substituting FGD gypsum for natural gypsum in traditional applications such as wall board, cement and soil conditioners has been demonstrated. It is estimated that there are over 200 new coal-fired plants and over 1000 upgrades of existing coal-fired plants in various stages around the world. An important aspect of gypsum recovery is the solid-liquid separation technology that is used.

This paper discusses three technologies that are used by coal-fired power plants to dewater and dry gypsum. These are centrifuges, continuous vacuum belt filters (CBF) and continuous-indexing vacuum belt filters (CI-BF) and rotary vacuum filters. Each technology is examined for their ability to filter, wash and dry the gypsum to meet the moisture content for salable FGD gypsum as compared with natural gypsum. The paper continues with an analysis of the utilities required for each technology including electricity and water usage and the ability to reuse water in the process. Finally, maintenance, reliability, uptime and redundancy requirements are discussed as well as general overview of instrumentation and PLC controls and communication is covered.

The paper concludes by describing the important information that power plant engineers should review before deciding on a solid-liquid separation technology. These parameters include type of FGD process, type of coal, limestone purity, water analysis, operating data, composition of the gypsum slurry and other upstream or downstream equipment. Finally, to meet the plants overall environmental objectives, a unique approach is described that takes the wastewater treatment sludge and incorporates it with the gypsum for a cement product.

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A Review of Filter Press Basics Versus Alternative Technologies (PDF)

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Abstract:

The range of liquid/solid separation equipment is very large and without an intimate knowledge it can be confusing and even illogical, the main reason being that there are only two basic principles of liquid/solid separation. This means that equipment which an independent expert would not necessarily chose first can still be made to work, albeit with poor efficiency. This implies that you should be extra careful with suppliers who offer only one type of equipment, as it may well be that although it can be made to work, it may not be the best choice!

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PharmaChem-Alternative Batch or Continuous Technologies to Filter Presses (PDF)

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Abstract:

Filtration experts, over the years, have discussed and debated filter presses and have indicated that soon they would be a thing of the past; the last filter press would be replaced by more modern equipment. Given that filter presses were amongst the oldest mechanical dewatering devices, this was a fairly plausible suggestion. However, now, almost half a century later, any chemical engineering exhibition shows that filter presses are alive and well and are going to be around for years to come. True, they look different from the ones in the 1950’s, but essentially they are still the same device. Their continued presence is a tribute to the filter press manufacturers who embraced new materials and upgraded the mechanics and configurations. However, the basics are still the same and much of the issues surrounding filter presses remain valid.

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PharmaChem-Cake Washing Mechanisms for Pressure and Vacuum Filtration (PDF)

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Abstract:

During many chemical and pharmaceutical process operations, cake washing is required since no filter system can remove all of the mother liquor by pressure or vacuum dewatering only. The need for cake washing to produce a “clean cake” for further processing, drying or disposal can be for several reasons including the removal of the mother liquor, exchange of solvents, dissolution of soluble components and the displacement of insoluble contaminants.

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Selecting Thin-Cake Candle Filter Technology for Amine Acid Gas Scrubbing Systems (PDF)

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Abstract:

The need for filtration systems in scrubbing units has been well documented. Filtration provides the benefits of reduced hot spots in the regenerator reboiler, reduced heat exchanger fouling and reduction of foaming in the absorbers. This paper discusses thin-cake candle filter technology that is used to remove trace amounts of solid contaminant fines from the recirculating fluid stream. These contaminants originate from various sources and are generally less than 3 - 5 microns in size, which makes their removal very difficult. Candle filter technology and the process of thin-cake building, is a new approach that is employed for high-efficiency and costeffective fines removal.

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Continuous Pressure and Vacuum Filtration and Washing of Organic Cellulose and Biomass Products (PDF)

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Abstract:

The processing of organic, cellulose-containing materials has been around for many years. Currently, due to high oil prices as well as the significant increase in ethanol usage nationwide from both grain based and cellulosic based sources, there is tremendous interest in developing efficient, cost-effective manufacturing processes to produce energy from cellulosic feed stocks. This article will use actual process data to highlight the choice of pressure or vacuum filtration and cake-washing techniques for these newly developed bioprocesses.

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Selection of Liquid - Solid Separating Equipment (PDF)

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Abstract:

In this three-part article, in part 1 Messrs. Pierson and Perlmutter discuss testing, selection of liquid/solid separating equipment and give practical filtration tips. In part 2 of this, Messrs. Pierson and Perlmutter discuss the finer points of filtration. Finally, in part 3 of their series, Messrs. Pierson and Perlmutter provide a summary and preliminary selection guide for various types of pressure, vacuum, batch and continuous filtration equipment.

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Replacing Filter Presses and Manual Plate Filters for Removing Trace Solids from Chemical Slurries with Thin-Cake Candle Filter Technology (PDF)

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Abstract:

The BHS technologies of Vertical Candle Filters provide improved product quality with more efficient operations compared with filter presses and manual plate filters. Fully automatic operations provide for complete containment of the solids and liquids for reduced maintenance costs and overall project savings.

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Dilute Stream Solid-Liquid Separations Using Continuous Vacuum Filtration Technologies (PDF)

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Abstract:

Continuous solid-liquid separation, by vacuum or pressure, are integral components of a processing scheme to produce energy from algae, biomass or other types of slurries. In solid-liquid separation systems, there are a wide variety of parameters that influence their performance. These include, for example, particle size and shape, type of particle (i.e. soft, gelatinous, discrete), density, concentration of solids in the slurry, viscosity, cake height, pressure or vacuum, and filter media. Continuous vacuum belt filters and continuous rotary pressure filters have been used to dewater these types of slurries. This presentation will focus on dewatering unit operations, test data and field installations.

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